Proper filing and shaping techniques

Nail disorders and diseases can affect the appearance, texture, and overall health of the nails. Here are some common nail disorders and diseases:

1. Onychomycosis:

Also known as nail fungus, this is a fungal infection that can cause discoloration, thickening, and brittle nails.

2. Paronychia:

It is an infection of the nail fold (the skin around the nail). It can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-lasting).

3. Ingrown toenails:

This occurs when the edge of the nail grows into the surrounding skin, causing pain, redness, and swelling.

4. Beau’s lines:

These are horizontal grooves or depressions that can appear across the nails due to temporary disruption in nail growth.

5. Leukonychia:

It is the appearance of white spots or lines on the nails, which can be caused by injury, nutritional deficiencies, or certain medical conditions.

6. Koilonychia:

Also known as spoon nails, it causes the nails to be thin and concave, resembling a spoon. It can be associated with iron deficiency anemia or other underlying health conditions.

7. Nail pitting:

Small depressions or pits on the surface of the nails are commonly seen in conditions like psoriasis, eczema, and alopecia areata.

8. Onycholysis:

This is the separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, usually starting at the free edge of the nail. It can be caused by trauma, fungal infections, or underlying medical conditions.

9. Nail clubbing:

It is characterized by an enlargement of the fingertips and a rounding or curving of the nails. Nail clubbing can be associated with various lung, heart, and gastrointestinal conditions.

10. Brittle nails:

Nails that are dry, weak, and prone to breakage are often referred to as brittle nails. It can be caused by frequent exposure to water, harsh chemicals, nutritional deficiencies, or certain medical conditions.

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It’s important to note that the information provided here is for general awareness, and if you suspect you have a nail disorder or disease, it’s recommended to consult with a dermatologist or healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

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